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This information takes many different forms, e.

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When information comes into our memory system from sensory input , it needs to be changed into a form that the system can cope with, so that it can be stored. Think of this as similar to changing your money into a different currency when you travel from one country to another. For example, a word which is seen in a book may be stored if it is changed encoded into a sound or a meaning i.

For example, how do you remember a telephone number you have looked up in the phone book?


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If you can see it then you are using visual coding, but if you are repeating it to yourself you are using acoustic coding by sound. Evidence suggests that this is the principle coding system in short-term memory STM is acoustic coding. When a person is presented with a list of numbers and letters, they will try to hold them in STM by rehearsing them verbally.


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  4. Rehearsal is a verbal process regardless of whether the list of items is presented acoustically someone reads them out , or visually on a sheet of paper. The principle encoding system in long-term memory LTM appears to be semantic coding by meaning. However, information in LTM can also be coded both visually and acoustically. This concerns the nature of memory stores, i.

    How Our Brains Make Memories | Science | Smithsonian

    The way we store information affects the way we retrieve it. Most adults can store between 5 and 9 items in their short-term memory. Miller put this idea forward and he called it the magic number 7. In contrast, the capacity of LTM is thought to be unlimited. This refers to getting information out storage. STM is stored and retrieved sequentially. For example, if a group of participants are given a list of words to remember, and then asked to recall the fourth word on the list, participants go through the list in the order they heard it in order to retrieve the information.

    LTM is stored and retrieved by association. This is why you can remember what you went upstairs for if you go back to the room where you first thought about it. Organizing information can help aid retrieval. You can organize information in sequences such as alphabetically, by size or by time. Imagine a patient being discharged from hospital whose treatment involved taking various pills at various times, changing their dressing and doing exercises.

    If the doctor gives these instructions in the order which they must be carried out throughout the day i. A large part of the research on memory is based on experiments conducted in laboratories. Those who take part in the experiments - the participants - are asked to perform tasks such as recalling lists of words and numbers.

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    Both the setting - the laboratory - and the tasks are a long way from everyday life. In many cases, the setting is artificial and the tasks fairly meaningless. Does this matter? Psychologists use the term ecological validity to refer to the extent to which the findings of research studies can be generalized to other settings. In other words, using groups of neurons enables the brain to have redundancy and still recall memories even if some of the original neurons fall silent or are damaged.

    Gonzalez explains: "Imagine you have a long and complicated story to tell. In order to preserve the story, you could tell it to five of your friends and then occasionally get together with all of them to re-tell the story and help each other fill in any gaps that an individual had forgotten. Additionally, each time you re-tell the story, you could bring new friends to learn and therefore help preserve it and strengthen the memory. In an analogous way, your own neurons help each other out to encode memories that will persist over time.

    Memory is so fundamental to human behavior that any impairment to memory can severely impact our daily life. Memory loss that occurs as part of normal aging can be a significant handicap for senior citizens. Moreover, memory loss caused by several diseases, most notably Alzheimer's, has devastating consequences that can interfere with the most basic routines including recognizing relatives or remembering the way back home. This work suggests that memories might fade more rapidly as we age because a memory is encoded by fewer neurons, and if any of these neurons fail, the memory is lost.

    System Requirements

    The study suggests that one day, designing treatments that could boost the recruitment of a higher number of neurons to encode a memory could help prevent memory loss. The conventional theories about memory storage postulate that making a memory more stable requires the strengthening of the connections to an individual neuron. Our results suggest that increasing the number of neurons that encode the same memory enables the memory to persist for longer.

    The paper is titled "Persistence of neuronal representations through time and damage in the hippocampus. Materials provided by California Institute of Technology. Original written by Lori Dajose. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News. Memories in the brain concept stock image.

    Journal Reference : Walter G. Persistence of neuronal representations through time and damage in the hippocampus. Science , Vol.


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    5. ScienceDaily, 23 August California Institute of Technology. How memories form and fade: Strong memories are encoded by teams of neurons working together in synchrony. Retrieved September 28, from www. Researchers have now shown that some memories can also be erased when one

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